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Kelsey, Adam Feb 9th, 2011

Page history last edited by Kelsey Adams 13 years, 2 months ago

February 8th, 2011


-Word: sounds/series of sounds, in which represents something (concrete, abstract) (react, reflect).
-We have symbolic thinking when apes don’t (consciousness)
-Apes don’t make stone tools
-Brain structure
-Body structure



February 4th, 2011

The ape that took over the world

-       The story of how man rose up from the apes may need to be rewritten

-       Put together oldest skull ever found, it should exist

-       10 million years ago, apes reigned supreme

-       May have used sticks and stones as tools

-       Humans are light years ahead of any other living beings

-       Anthropologists thought they could find a fossil; to explain why we are so superior to all other animals

-       100,000 years ago big brain theory was introduced, one ape with bigger brain who created a bunch of other big brained apes

-       Louis Leaky, discovered that the apes brain would be half the size of a human brain

-       His son Richard set out to find the brain when his father was old

-       After 4 years, they found then skull of an apelike creature with a large brain, called it 1470

-       Richard believed he had found the fossil his father was looking for

-       It seemed like humans had evolved differently because of their large brains


-       This theory was about to be proven wrong

-       They found a full skeleton of an apelike creature that they called Lucy

-       This creature had one humanlike characteristic, she was bipedal

-       They also found Lucy’s footprints, this proved that she walked just like us

-       Lucy’s brain was too small, and Lucy was older so the big brain theory had to be wrong

-       Since they only needed two legs to walk, they could use their hands for making and using tools


-       Adaptations give a certain species an advantage so those that do not adapt end up going extinct

-       Adaptive radiation: motor of evolution

-       Cat family has similar family tree to us because there are many different species that derived from one common adaptation

-       Lucy evolved without any adaptive radiation which is different from any other species

-       Quaid discovered that there had been a mass extinction which ended the reign of the apes,  almost only Lucy’s species survived

-       Meave Leaky found a skull that was about 3 million years old

-       Species was proven to have walked on two legs

The ape that took over the world

-Maeve Leakey

-The oldest skull ever found

-Evolution began 10 million years ago

-50 difference species of apes

-Apes were the most intelligent animal at the time

-7 million years later, there are only some remaining species

-We are the most intelligent animal that has ever live

-Our brains are 3 times bigger than a chimpanzees

-Big Brain Theory(our superiour intelligence drives our evolution), Homo Sapiens evolved because of one primate/ ape species developed a bigger brain than others.

-Louis Leakey, Richard (son)+ Maeve= Louise Leakey

-Maeve had a bunch of pieces and had to contsruct a full skull of an ape like creature, with a big-ish brain.

-600 cubic centimeters of space in the brain cavity, humans hare 1200 cc

-Don Johanasson

-Discovered a 3 million year old ape like creature

-This was Lucy

-Lucy-bipedal but small brained
Louis Leakey’s 1470- big brained but not bipedal
-So the big brain doesn’t drive us for our evolution, but bipedalism does
-Theory One:
A 3 million year old ape creature was found. They called this skeleton Lucy, the . This skeleton had one specific characteristic, and it wasn’t her brain; it was the way she walked. Bipedal. Her pelvic was very similar to that of a human.  They knew she was a human ancestor because she was bipedal. The size of her brain was ape size (a baseball). She could be our ancestor, but her brain was significantly smaller.
-Theory Two:
Because Lucy was much younger then the big brain 1470, we realized that being bipedal is the main key for being an ancestor, not the big brain. Lucy must have been the ancestor of the big brain 1470.
-Adaptive Radiation: Adaptive radiation: the motor of evolution. evolution that radiates different species from a common ancestor
-Common ancestor: Lucy
-Evolutionary tree: related species from different branches
-Environmental catastrophe at the end of the apes period (6-8 million years ago)
-Theory One: Massive extinction affected most but the Autralopithicene (Lucy).  
-Theory Two: Do we have really have a unique evolutionary path or have we evolved according to adaptive radiation like the rest of human life. Our path is not like any other.
-Maeve Leakey and her team discovered a 3 million year of skull. It had a whole right underneath the head (spine) so it was like us humans.



February 3rd, 2011

Zeresenay Alemseged looks for humanity's roots

-We are all descendants from Africa

-Africa= a place where 90% of our evolutionary process took place

-Selam is the earliest child to be discovered.  She is a their most complete skeleton of a three year old girl who lived and died 3.3 million years ago.  She was an Australopithecus  Afarensis (LUCY SPECIES).

-Salem means peace, it means to celebrate peace in the region

-The first technology appeared 2.6 million years ago, stone tools

-First entertainment (flute), 35 000 years ago

-First design is 75 000 years ago (beads)

-We diverges sometime around 7 million years ago

-Chimp and humans share over 98 percent of genetic material

-When searching for remains, you go to areas that are remote, hot, hostile and often with no access

-You use shovels and picks

-It was a very vast land where they found Salem

-The environment was completely different back in the day

-Most complete juvenile skeleton ever discovered in paleoanthroplogy

-Some features in the foot and legs showed that she walked upright

-Salam had vertical forehead like humans unlike monkeys

-Belonged to austrolopithecus aparensus

-Salam was girl because it had very small canine teeth

-Died about 3.3 million years ago

-Skeleton shows , for the first time, how infants looked 3.3 million years ago

-Humans are more dependant on their parents because it takes our brains longer to fully develop

-Salam had a hyoid bone under the tongue which is uncharacteristic to humans but characteristic to chimps so Salam’s voice probably sounded more like that of a chimp

-This discovery was very important because before it  we only knew how our adult ancestors looked but the new fossil fixed this problem



February 2nd, 2011

Human Spark Documentary:

-All language is symbolic
-Southern France
-15-20 thousand years ago, new comers, not Neanderthals, carved horses into cave walls.  This was something Neanderthals couldn’t do.
-Australia had similar drawings and carving
-The Tattersol Theory (Ian T.)
-1.6 million years ago, stone tools were found, its a tool that is adequate to its task
-Apes don’t make stone tools
-around for 50 thousand generations
-Around 100 000 years we (Neanderthal) made the same kind of tool.
-Why didn’t Neanderthal evolve? (They had: Fire, tools, clothing, social structure).
-They were good at adapting but not innovating.
-Need to wear protective gear to not mix up human DNA with Neanderthal.
-After analyzing the protein in the bone of Neanderthal, they found that they only ate animals, no plants.
-They didn’t try to think of finding ways to eat anything else but other land animals.  They adapted to their environment and the tools that they can get from it.  They never found new ways to do things, they just adapted. They never ate fish because the tools they had couldn’t get that type of animal, so they adapted to their environment.
-Neanderthals began making beads
-N’s had general tools, same tools work for everything
-Modern humans all the solutions are technological
-You can’t separate technology from society
-The difference between us and the N’s is technological

Human Spark Documentary Part 1

-    Rock shelter may have housed neanderthals at one point

-    Humans possessed spark that that our other ancestors did not

-    Ancestors had small brains but larger faces

-    Stone hand axes 1.6 million years ago

-    Ape doesn’t make stone tools

-    Why didn’t neanderthals have the spark?

-    For generations  our ancestors stuck to the same way of doing things

-    Dig into bones in search of Neanderthal DNA

-    Protein extracted from Neanderthal bones showed that they ate mostly meat protein no fish protein





Part 3

-    No other primate or mammal besides humans can make beads

-    The difference between Neanderthal and us is technological


Part 4

-    Stone tools made from obsidian



January 30th, 2011

Culture Documentary:

- Koonalda is cave once used by ancestors
-The cave became a place for personnel expression
-You can find human impressions dates about 24000 years
- Walls covered in series of swirling lines
- Marked the beginning of ancestor ability to understand abstract concepts
-This was the dawn of conciousness

-A land of huge stones
-Aboriginal artist painted on them
- Arnhem land are series of rocks with ancient art painted on them
- In Arnhem land 90% of images are of human female
- In Australia, people learn about their ancestors culture by interacting with the rock art
-It was a form of communication

-Quercy, France
- In selected caves in the south of France, Michel Lorblanchet tries to recreate art using only the tools that our ancestors had
-He worked in dim light and uses tool such as charcoal, uses his mouth as paintbrush

Exhibit 1: Primate Societies

- Scientists study primate behaviour because it helps us learn bout the behaviour of our ancestors
- Non human and human primates live an many types with own distinct social rules
- Groups have male or female dominance hierarchies
- Ape behaviour is complex includes using sex for conflict resolution, displaying social problem solving, and deception skills
- Also use tools
- Bonobo society is female centered and fairly egalitarian
- Many cases of primates deceiving each other for food or mates
- Chimpanzees most frequent tool users
- Some scientists argue that chimpanzees know and use medicinal plants

Exhibit 2: The Toolmakers

- a tool is any object modified for specific use
- Stone tools appear in fossil record around 2.5 million years ago in East Africa
- Tools were mostly cores, hammers, flakes and manuports
- First stone tools probably belonged to several hominid types in East Africa
- Scientists determined that tools were used to cut bone, hides, meat and wood

Exhibit 3: Making tools:

-Tools used as an extension of the human body.
-they are a significant part of our ecological adaptation.
-the evolved parallel to our expanding brains.
-4 categories: Oldewan, Acheulean, Mousterian, Aurignacian.

Oldewan: -Homo Habilis  made these tools
    -Cores, hammers and flakes
           -Manuports, choppers, spheroids, polyhedrons
    -Also proto-hand axes
   -This began 1.5 million years ago.

Acheulean: -Appeared during the time of Homo Erectus
      -Standardize hand axes, cleavers and picks
      -Butchering and woodworking
      -Could have been constructed out of bamboo

Mousterian: -Neanderthals and early Homo Sapiens
       -Hand axes, side scrappers, blades, knives, denticulates, notches, burins and        perforators.
       -Mousterian tool makers revolutionized stone tools by developing the Levallois t        technique (shaping the core into a intermediate from before removing flakes).

Aurignacian:- Found with later Homo Sapiens.
       -End scrapers, blades , points, knives, burins, bone points and ivory pendants.
       -Magdalenean period (18000 - 10 000 years ago) other kinds of tools increased        dramatically: needles, fishhooks and harpoons etc.

Exhibit 4: Hunting or scavenging?
-Hunters capture and kill prey.
-Scavengers steal kills made by other animals or use carcasses of animals that died naturally.
-Scavengers use every last piece of a carcase
-Scavenging can be very dangerous due to powerful animals
-Modern carnivores hunt and scavenge
-Chimpanzees hunted two to three time a week during the dry season
-Australopithicines shifted to meat in the dry season when other food was scarce.
-Researcher said that our ancestors broke the bones to extract marrow, a rich source of calories.
-Homo erectus was probably the first true hunter, with clear hunting weapons.
-Modern hunters and gatherers rely on foraged food, they neither farm nor keep animals.
-Woman hunted small animals, grew plants and cared for the children.
-Men hunted large animals.
-10 000 years ago agriculture was introduced and we now live this way.



January 26th, 2011

Spencer Wells TED video

-He is going to explain how we are all on, but how there is so much diversity around the globe
-How genetics helped created this diversity
-Break down the question: How did we create this diversity into sub questions like:
Do we all come from the same origin?
When did we originate as a species, how long have we been diverging from each other?
If we do spring from a common source, how did we come to occupy every corner of the globe?
-Diversity: different ways of life, different races, different languages.
-Apes originated on the African continent (3 million years ago) and they are our closest relatives.
-Darwin talked about our distant ancestry, common ancestry.
-But what about our human ancestry?
-Paleoanthropology helps us find possibilities to who our ancestors are.
-They found three different types of skulls and bones that were all different looking but all came from the same time, so how can you tell which ones are our direct ancestors.
-Karl Von Linne decided to categorize every living organism on the planet
-What they want to do if construct a family tree for everyone alive today (its a genealogical problem).
-We have our DNA which takes us back to the earliest days of our species.
-DNA is your blueprint.
-Changes occur in our DNA through time, they become markers of decent, if you share a marker with someone, it means that they are your ancestor.
-Its by looking at the pattern of genetic variation, the pattern of these markers of people all around the world, and accessing the relative ages of when they occurring throughout our history, is when they were able to create a family tree for everyone around the world.

- Deepest lineages among family tree is found in Africa
- At some point, a subgroup of Africans left the continent of Africa to populate the rest of the world
- Within last 200,000 years, we all share a female ancestor in Africa
- Male ancestor that we all share only lived about 60,000 years ago
- Within last 60,000 years we began to create this diversity
- This happened because at this time we were going into the worst part of the last ice age
- Since ice sucks moisture out of ground, Africa was drying out
- Human population crashed to only about 2000
- 50,000 to 70,000 years ago art makes its first appearance
- Humans began to specialize in particular prey species at different times of year, population size expanded
- Complete language also probably appeared around that time
- This helped us survive those conditions and expand our population around the world
- Genographic project: collecting DNA samples of indigenous populations from around the world

January 26th, 2011

Notes on the evolution of human beings

(Based on the documentary) (COMBINED NOTES)



-Hadar, Ethiopia rich in animal fossils+ right kind of geology so there was chance of finding homonid fossils

-1973, found knee joint of hominid, first hominid discovery, it showed that it was from a creature who stood up right

-1974, found partial skeleton of hominid

Australopithecus  Afarensis
-Donald Johanson
-Found a partial skeleton of a hominid
-Elbow joint was the Lucy discovery
-Stood less than 4 feet tall
-It was female, smaller body shape
-Chose name Lucy because they were listening to the song Lucy in the sky with diamonds while analyzing the fossils
-She was the ape who stood up
-Australopithecus  Afarensis (Common ancestor to all others)
-Austral (Southern)
-Pithecus (Ape)
-Afarensis (Region)
-Hadar is very barren dusty place with little rainfall
-Carnivores have chewed many of bones


Charles Darwin
-African Chimp is our closest relative
-Share less than 98% of our genetic code
-Boreal forests turned into deserts 6 millions years ago
-Many apes perished and a few species survived
-1871, Charles Darwin proposed that humans must have shared common ancestor
-Closest relative is African chimpanzee
-8 million years ago major part of Africa was covered in lush forest
-3.5 Million years ago volcano erupted covering landscape with ash
-It rained causing the ash to become similar to cement
-Footprints stayed (Laetoli footprints)
-They kept a record of footprints from that day
-Apes became bipedal  so that they could use they hands for other tasks while using their legs to move, this could help them survive longer
-Bipedalism is the 1st thing that sets Homosapiens apart from the apes.

Homo Erectus
-Getting closer to our own image (skeleton image) (bigger brain than Australopithecus Afarensis)
-Tracana Boy
-Big brains
-Big Bodies
-They begin to move out of Africa to come into Europe to follow food.
-1984, found most complete skeleton of homo erectus ever


1864- homo neanderthalensis
-evolved in the cold weather
-Ian Tattersall said that the face structure and brain case is very different in the Neadertal than humans.
-Nean+Humans interbread.
-Bows and arrows, spears heads, spear throwing (Modern technology, homo sapiens.)




January 22nd, 2011

5 Major discoveries in anthropology

Based on the video, “100 Greatest Discoveries”.

5 Main Discoveries:

-How a species, such as the dinosaurs, became extinct (the many theories).

-What caused the potential build up of humans (type of weather, lack of oxygen, created organic compounds, essential building blocks for creating proteins, which plays a vital role in the biochemical spark that starts life).

-It helped us discover that life can happen anywhere.

-Other events occurred that shaped our world just like the “big bang”.  Burgess Shale showed us that a huge mudslide occurred, wiping out hundreds of marine species which completely altered our world today (you can see the fossils of old marine animals in the shale rock found by Charles Wallcott).

-We are related to everything else in nature, linked to everything on earth (Darwin)

-Science is provisional, it is the best truth.

-Anthropologist, Donald Johanasson, and his team were working in Ethiopia and discovered the partial remains of an ancient hominid which was a species that was said to be part of the family that includes human kind (Lucy).

-Mary Leeche discovered found a pair of fossilized footprints of a hominid (walked like humans).

Main Notes:
Section One
- The odds of surviving or facing extinction are always changing
- Some changes are gradual, others happen in a blink
- Layer of clay is known as KT boundary which was made when the dinosaurs mysteriously vanished ( discovered by Alvarez)
- This was thought to be created by a collision with a giant asteroid
- The cloud of debris blocked the sun and the air was chocked with poisonous gas
- This killed half of all of Earth’s living life forms
- The Chiksalude crater was found near the gulf of Mexico to backup this idea
- Crater was 550 ft deep
- However, the asteroid that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs is said to have been much bigger in the past
- This theory is not without controversy
- Other theories ( intense volcanic eruptions)
- Evidence supports Alvarez’s discovery
- The meteor is said to have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs which made room for humans to live on Earth

Section Two
- Yellowstone sits on crater of super volcano
- Stanley Miller discovered that life could happen anywhere with the right conditions
- Dr. Robert Ballard discovered hydrothermal vents in the ocean, temperatures were 720 degrees Fahrenheit and there was no sunlight
- However, they found marine life in these conditions
- This proved that not all forms of life need the sun to survive

Section Three
- Charles Walcott found fossils from the Cambrian Period
- Called it Burgess Shale
- This provided a snapshot of a time when the planet was dominated by a species of underwater creatures
- They have found over 170 different species of this ancient marine life

 Section Four
- Carl Linneas came out with a system for classifying every living thing
- Based on sex organs of plants
- Binomial system
- Modern systems categorize species based on how they evolve

Section Five
- Charles Darwin quit medical school to pursue dream of becoming naturalist
- Surveyed + Mapped coastal waters
- Darwin believed Earth changed slowly over millions of years
- 1837, opened his first species notebook
- Believed struggle to survive was the driving force behind all life
- Darwin discovered process of natural selection
- It took Darwin 20 years to publish his discoveries due to religious protest

Section Six
- 1974, Donald Johanson came across bones from species that is believed to be part of same family as humankind ( Lucy)
- This could be missing link connecting chimpanzees and humans
- 1978, Mary Leakey found footprints old enough and small enough to have been made by two hominids
- Oldest human ancestor footprints that we have today
- Michelle Brune unearthed six skull fragments of a hominid that they nicknamed Tumai
The skull had an apelike cranium with teeth that resembled those of humans

January 19th, 2011

Questions to help understand anthropology

1.  What are the major fields of study in anthropology?

-Cultural Anthropology (deals with human culture and society).

-Physical Anthropology how humans have evolved over time and the influences such as: environmental and cultural influences).

-Archeology (what humans have creating throughout history).

-Linguistics (how languages are formed, evolve and the interaction between culture and language).


2.  What are the sub-disciplines?

-Cultural (Cyborg Anthropology)
-Physical (Biological, paleontology, human evolution).


3.  Where would an anthropologist work?

-Private sectors (for corporations or businesses involved in domestic operations and international trade).
-Internal research analysts or consultants, assisting in product development, market research and advertising strategies.
-Research in nutrition.
-Human resource management.
-Hospital work.


4.  What research methods does the anthropologist use?

-Participant observation.
-Cross-Cultural comparison.
-Survey research.
-Archival research.
-Media analysis.
-Historical analysis.


5.  What does a paleontologist study?

Paleontology is the study of what fossils tell us about the ecologies of the past, about evolution, and about our place, as humans, in the world. The study of fossils studies dinosaurs and hominents (hominoids) and the human genus.


6.  Who are the world's most famous paleontologist?

The world’s most famous paleontologists are Luis Alvarez and Lawrence M. Lambe.



7.  What does an archeologist study?

Archaeologists study people who lived in the past. Archaeologists gather information by digging. Archeology analyzes remains from our past in order to gain a greater understanding of human culture.


8.  Name a world famous archeologist and what did he discover? (Who is the famous Hollywood anthropologist?)

Sir Arthur Evans is a famous archeologist. He discovered the Palace of Minos on the Island of Crete. Indiana Jones


9.  Why does anthropology matter?

Anthropology is important because we can use it to help us with innovations to solve modern problems. For example anthropology can be important for designing work stations or airplane seats. We would all be lost, there would be no religion, no race.  We would all just be.  We are all unique and we would all be alone, not connected.


10.  Why would teens be interested in anthropology?

Because they would like to know how we survived back in the day.

January 26th, 2011

Rules of engagement

In the case of a powerpoint or video...

Both of us should write down our own notes on separate parts of the page.  If there is something that we find important, unimportant, not explained enough, over explained etc. we should highlight the words or sentences in different colours to represent a concern with the notes. Or, if anything, add a yellow sticky note next to the notes with a comment so that the write can re-look what he or she wrote.

Yellow: Important
Red: Not important
Green: Not explained enough
Grey: Over explained

We should also set a primary writer and a secondary writer at the beginning of our notes so Mrs. Bambic can see that one is writing quick notes and one is going into further detail after reading the short notes.

The day before the due date of an assignment, we should meet and go on the google docs together and reread what both of us wrote and delete unnecessary notes and/or repeated notes.

In the case of homework....

We write out own notes then the day before the due date of an assignment, we should meet and go on the google docs together and reread what both of us wrote and delete unnecessary notes and/or repeated notes.

**we can split the work, but we have to add something to each others notes to know that we watched the whole video or watched the whole powerpoint.

**Mention that the notes are combined.  If we were to work separately, we would go on the chat and discuss how to combine our notes then mention at the beginning of the notes that they have been combined.

In the case of absence...

The person in class writes the notes and the person who is absent will go on the google docs ASAP to discuss via chat (todaysmeet) so he or she understand the topic of the day. Mention the absence at the bottom of the page. The person who is absent must leave a short comment or question.



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